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CHM 224 : Objectives 



Chapter 12: Gases and Their Properties
Students must recognize, explain and apply
 Properties of gases
 Pressure
 Units of pressure
 Standard temperature and pressure
Students must also understand, apply, and justify the concepts of
 Boyle's Law
 Charle's Law
 Avogadro's Law
 Ideal Gas Equation
 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
 KineticMolecular Theory
 Graham's Law
 Diffusion
 Van der Waals equation
Chapter 13: Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids
Students must recognize, explain and apply
 Liquid and solid states of matter in more detail, and particularly the forces responsible for their formation.
Students must also understand, apply, and justify the concepts of
 Van der Waals forces
 Hydrogen Bonding
 Dynamic Equilibrium
 Equilibrium vapor pressure
 Critical Points
 Lattice Structures
 Phase Diagrams
 Phase Changes
Chapter 14: Solutions and Their Behaviors
Students must recognize, explain and apply
 Colligative properties and their dependence on relative numbers of solvent and solute particles in solution
Students must also understand, apply, and justify the concepts of
 Vapor Pressure, Melting Point, Boiling Point, and Osmotic Pressure
 Mole Fraction, Molality, and Weight percent
 Enthalpy of Solution
 Henry's Law
 Raoult's Law
Chapter 15: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Kinetics
Students must recognize, explain and apply
 The chemical kinetics, speed or rate, of a reaction under various conditions
 Mechanisms, the sequence of events at the molecular level that controls the speed or
outcome of the reaction
Students must also understand, apply, and justify the concepts of
 Reaction rates
 Mechanisms
 Rate constants & reaction orders
 Half life
 Reaction energy diagrams & Transition states
 Activation energies and complexes
 Transition State Theory
 Collision Theory
 Rate determining steps
 Catalysis
Chapter 16: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Equilibrium
Students must recognize, explain and apply
 Chemical reactions and reversibility
 Equilibrium of closed systems
Students must also understand, apply, and justify the concepts of
 Calculation Equilibrium constant expressions
 Predicting reaction direction
 Reaction quotient
 Le Chatelier's principle
Chapter 17: Principles of Reactivity: Chemistry of Acids and Bases
Students must recognize, explain and apply
 Different types of acids and bases
 Understand acid, base behavior
Students must also understand, apply, and justify the concepts of
 BronstedLowry acids and bases
 Autoionization
 Hydronium ion
 Amphoteric species
 Conjugate acids and bases
 pH
 Equilibrium constants for acids and bases
 Monoprotic and Polyprotic acids
 Lewis Theory
 Formation constants
Chapter 18: Principles of Reactivity: Other Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
Students must recognize, explain and apply
 Acidbase chemistry with emphasis on the results of acidbase reactions
 The control of acid base reactions
 Selective precipitation
Students must also understand, apply, and justify the concepts of
 Buffers
 Common ion effect
 Buffer solutions
 Titration curves
 Acidbased indicators
 Solubility
 Formation constant
Chapter 19: Principles of Reactivity: Entropy and Free Energy
Students must recognize, explain and apply
 Assess heat transfer associated with changes in temperature and changes in state
 Define and understand the state functions enthalpy and internal energy
 Selective precipitation
 Calculate the energy changes occurring in chemical reactions and learn how these changes are measured
Chapter 20: Principles of Reactivity: Electron Transfer Reactions
Students must recognize, explain and apply
 Understand the concept of perpetual motion machines
 Assess heat and spontaneity associated with its surroundings
 Define, understand, and apply the Boltzman Equation for Entropy
 Apply the second law of thermodynamics
 Assess and apply Gibbs Free Energy and spontaneity to chemical reactions






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